Chester E. McDuffee’s Patented Diving Suit (1911)
“Macduffs ADS was tested in 1915 in Long Island Sound. It was made like the “Hanseatische” from aluminum alloy and weighted about 250 kilo. The cylindrical joints mounted on ball bearings allowed movement in one direction only.
They do not appear to be watertight due to the fact Macduffee implemented a waterpump in the suit. This pump was able to pump water from the leg section into the sea. The pump operated on compressed air supplied from the surface. The used air from the pump then expanded into the suit and was used by the diver for breathing. ( Robert H. Davis Stated the pump was driven by electricity)
The suit was equipped with a 12 section-gripper mounted on one arm and a electric light on the other arm. Also a hook is seen on a picture. Macduffee’s suit reached 65 meters of waterdepth in 1915!”
“Cornell Aeronautical Laboratories of Buffalo, New York were producing papers on Man Amplifiers as early as 1960. In 1961 they received a grant to explore these ideas. Initial work was on an exoskeleton, and later work on a mock-up.
There are some initial concepts one has to be aware of in understanding Man Amplifiers.
Typically there is a master component, and a slave component. In other teleoperated manipulators, they are physically and spatially separate. In the exoskeleton man-amplifier, they are together. In the Cornell Man-Amplifier, one of the problems encountered was the close proximity of the control harness (master) with the powered exoskeleton.
You will often see the phrase “bilateral force feedback with force reflection”.
Bilateral force feedback meaning that both the master and slave units have common joints and position and force information can be transmitted in both directions (from operator to task and vice versa). Force feedback is when, for example, an obstacle is met with some resistance, that the resistance is felt back at the master. E.g. if you were to place an object next to a wall, you, as the operator, would feel the wall if the object being held by the slave unit touched it.
Force reflection is force feedback but the power can also be amplified. A force-reflection ratio of 1:1 would be normal force-feedback (compensation for the units weight and inertia). A ratio of 1:10 would mean that, for example, the person operating the master unit would lift an object of 1 kilogram would amplify to 10 kilograms at the powered slave end. The ratio can also go in the other direction and could apply to manipulators such as those used for surgical procedures.
The first prototype man amplifier wasn’t to be seen until General Electric built their Hardiman I, based on results from the Cornell research.”